1493 The Roman Catholic Church makes a proclamation in the form of a papal bull entitled Inter Caetera. The proclamation stated that aboriginal people were not humans with souls but rather animals without souls and, for this reason, have no rights either of jurisdiction or property in the lands of the new world.1
1604 the Traditional Capital of the Passamaquoddy Indians is known as Qonasqamkuk.
Qonasqamkuk is the site of General Council meetings for area first nations people and the site of large shell midden, it is also the ancient place of worship for the Passamaquoddy and other first nations people. Qonasqamkuk is the sacred burial ground for Passamaquoddy Chiefs and is regarded as a traditional place where the Passamaquoddy quested for ancestral strength, wisdom and spiritual guidance.
1604 the Passamaquoddy People greeted Champlain at Qonasqamkuk.
1636 French traders compete with each other over the very productive fur trade from the St. Croix and Passamaquoddy Bay area. The expanding fur trade not only caused the rapid spread of epidemics that wiped out large numbers of American Indians, but also introduced alcoholism.2
Famines, foreign diseases, relentless encroachment pressure from European settlers, and Anglo-Wabanaki wars altered indigenous cultural landscape forever. Thse historical events triggered ethnic and territorial reconfigurations that nearly annihilated Wabanaki peoples and robbed the surviving remnants of almost their entire homeland – a vast territory that had provided them with an abundance of natural resources for untold generations.3
1704 The ancient Passamaquoddy village known as Siqoniw Utenehsis (Spring Village) at the head of tide on the Schoodic River was attacked by a force of New Englanders under the command of Colonel Benjamin Church.4 Passamaquoddies were killed in this attack and the stocks of fish were stolen and destroyed. The village was a clearing of about 15 acres and was a place for growing corn too. Many ancestors are buried here. The village was on both sides of the river at what is now Calais, Maine and Milltown NB.
1744 France declared war against England. Trouble soon spreads to Wabanaki land beginning in Nova Scotia. Due to French influence on the Indians the government of Massachusetts declared war on all tribes east of Passamaquoddy.
1744 The government of Massachusetts declared war against the Passamaquoddy and other tribes east of the Penobscot. A reward of 100 pounds was paid for the scalp of a male Indian over 12 years of age, 50 pounds for women and children, and an additional 5 pounds for captives.
1760 The Maine frontier rapidly opened, with people pushing far inland. The process ceased during the American Revolution, but resumed in the 1780s and continued through the early nineteenth century.5
1763 Passamaquoddy send a letter to the Governor of Massachusetts complaining of encroachment by white settlers on tribal territory.
1782 The first saw mill built on the St Croix near the mouth of Porter’s Stream. Pollution of the water begins.
Passamaquoddy Tribe Robbed by Loyalists
1780’s the Passamaquoddy provided winter refuge for loyalists, who agreed to pay 25 pounds for the winter stay.
1783 Loyalists illegally commenced settlement and brought surveyors onto Passamaquoddy land.
Historically, our people attempted to protect the sanctity and prevent the settlement of our land, by detaining the trespassing surveyors.
1784 Loyalists cut down the Passamaquoddy cross and destroyed the place of worship for the Passamaquoddy.
1784 By January there were over 60 houses built at St Andrews. By March part of the English military from Penobscot arrived at St Andrews. By May there were 90 houses at St Andrews and more being built daily. Two sawmills were on the St Croix River (Canadian side).6
1784 Over 100 British Loyalists sailed to St Stephens and landed on June 24 and pitched their tents along the shore. King George III granted 100 acres of land to each settler. Royal agents surveyed and laid out village lots and 100 acre farms, and one of these were given to each man residing in town.
1784 By the end of the year St Andrews expanded into a village of 200-300 houses and other settlements were being built. There was also 100 houses in the town of Schoodick (now St Stephen).7
1785 Loyalists force Passamaquoddies from Qonasqamkuk and establish ST.Andrews.
Loyalists withhold agreed payment from Passamaquoddies.
Passamaquoddies are forced to reside in St. Andrews in areas designated as “Indian Encampments.”
1788 The population of St Andrews and vicinity on the Canadian side has increased to over 3,000 and the town has about 600 houses.8
1792 Passamaquoddy petitioned Massachusetts for land where they could “assemble unmolested.”
1819 There were 47 mills on both sides of the St. Croix River.
1854 Passamaquoddies petition the province for New Brunswick for an investigation into the illegal taking of Passamaquoddy land.
1900’s St. Andrews town Officials desecrate Passamaquoddy burial grounds by town sanctioned construction.
St. Andrews bulldozes and destroys sacred sweet grass area used by our people in ceremonies and traditional basket making.
Mid 1990s the Passamaquoddy re-establish the St. Croix-Schoodic band of Passamaquoddies with a new Tribal Chief and Council headquartered at Qonasqamkuk (Indian Point, St Andrews) with Hugh Akagi as the Tribal Chief.